It is important that the equations are used in accordance with the expectations of their founding model or theory. The CICS model was initially developed using graphical representations of coordinate system. Because the model has its roots in pictures, it was easy to “see” that one oscillation represented a complete cycle and that the equations expected half of this value.

In the CICS model, one wavelength is the same as the length of one oscillation. So, the use of one-half a wavelength, or the number of cycles in one-half a wavelength, is consistent with the CICS model’s expectations. Importantly, this finding is supported by the analysis of the Ives and Stillwell and the Michelson and Morley experiments.

Importantly, the computations associated with the CICS equations, when applied to frequencies or wavelengths, must adhere to the superposition of waves principle. The CICS model equations adhere to this principle.